星期六, 25 2月 2017 16:20

BBC评出100年来最伟大的11本儿童读物,你的孩子读过吗?

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2017-2-25

BBC评出100年来最伟大的11本儿童读物,你的孩子读过吗?

BBC文化频道集结了世界各地的权威书评人,来评选100年来最优秀的英语儿童读物(适于10岁或以下儿童阅读)。以下列出的排名前11的书籍,是评论家们三番五次提到的,这些书将继续影响一代又一代的儿童。

BBC 的原文链接

How to define a classic for kids

What are the greatest children’s books ever? In search of a collective critical assessment, BBC Culture’s Jane Ciabattari polled dozens of critics around the world, including NPR’s Maureen Corrigan; Nicolette Jones, children’s books editor of the Sunday Times; Nicole Lamy of the Boston Globe; Time magazine's books editor Lev Grossman; Daniel Hahn, author of the new Oxford Companion to Children's Literature; and Beirut-based critic Rayyan Al-Shawaf. We asked each to name the best children’s books (for ages 10 and under) ever published in English. The critics named 151. Some of the choices may surprise you. A few books you might think would be contenders to top the poll didn’t even make the top 20. (For a full list of the runners-up visit our Twitter feed @BBC_Culture.) The titles that follow appeared over and again from the critics we polled and will continue to inspire children for many years to come. (Credit: Getty Images)

怎样定义儿童经典读物?  

     
        迄今为止最优秀的儿童读物是哪些呢?在一项集体评估调查当中,BBC文化频道的简·齐亚巴塔里对世界各地的评论家进行民意检测,包括NPR(美国国家公共电台)的莫林·科里根,星期日泰晤士报的儿童读物编辑尼科莱特·琼斯,波士顿环球报的妮可·拉米,时代杂志的图书编辑列弗·格罗斯曼,新版的《牛津儿童文学指南》作者丹尼尔·哈恩,驻贝鲁特评论家雷恩·艾沙瓦夫。我们让每人列出英国迄今为止的最佳儿童读物(适于10岁或以下儿童阅读),由此得到了151个结果。他们选的有些书可能出乎你的意料,有些你认为最好的书在他们的名单里连前20都没上(想了解书单里“亚军”的完整名单请访问我们的推特@BBC_Culture)。以下列出的书目是我们调查的评论家们三番五次提到的,这些书将继续影响一代又一代的儿童。

11. Laura Ingalls Wilder, Little House on the Prairie (1935)

Wilder’s nine classic frontier novels were inspired by her own 19th Century childhood. She was raised in a pioneer family, and traveled through the Midwest by covered wagon. Wilder writes with authentic detail of a little girl living “in the Big Woods of Wisconsin, in a little gray house made of logs" with her parents, two sisters and their dog, Jack. "As far as a man could go to the north in a day, or a week, or a whole month, there was nothing but woods. There were no houses.” Wilder’s accounts have made daily life on the frontier vivid for generations. (Credit: Harper)

11.罗兰·英格斯·怀德《草原上的小木屋》(1935)

        怀德的九部边地小说灵感来源于她19世纪的童年经历。她在一个拓荒之家长大,坐着篷车游遍美国中西部。一个“住在威斯康辛大森林中的幽暗木头小屋里”的女孩,和父母,两个姐妹,还有一条叫杰克的狗一起生活,这些细节都来源于怀德的真实经历。“一个人一天,一星期,或者一整个月都往北方走,一路上只能看到森林。看不到房子。”怀德对边地日常生活的描写生动形象,打动了几代读者。

10. Madeleine L’Engle, A Wrinkle In Time (1962)

Meg Murry’s father, a time traveling physicist, has disappeared. One night she, her precocious younger brother Charles Wallace and her mother – “a scientist and a beauty as well” – have an unexpected visitor. "Wild nights are my glory," the strange Mrs Whatsit tells them. "I just got blown off course.” She refers to a tesseract, a fifth dimension that allows travel through time and space. With her brother and a high school friend, Calvin, Meg sets out across the universe to find her father. Their confrontation with IT, the disembodied conformist intelligence that casts a shadow over the universe, is a noirish Cold War touch. L’Engle’s Newbery Award-winning book was an early foray into science fiction for younger readers, inspired in part by Einstein’s theory of relativity. Meg was a first in literature: a nerdy girl whose intelligence was matched by her powerful love for her family. (Credit: Farrar, Straus & Giroux)

10.马德琳·英格《时间的皱纹》(1962)

        麦格·莫瑞的爸爸是一个时间旅行物理学家,有一天他突然消失了。一天夜里,麦格·莫瑞,早熟的弟弟查尔斯·华莱士和妈妈(一个美女科学家)遇到了一位不速之客。“暴风雨之夜是我的荣耀,”陌生来客沃兹特夫人告诉他们。“我被风刮得迷了路。”她说的迷路是指在超正方体里迷了路,超正方体其实是第五次元,在五维世界里可以在时空中任意穿梭。麦格和弟弟还有一个高中的朋友加尔文开始漫游宇宙,寻找她的父亲。他们遇到了IT,一个没有实体的智人,循规蹈矩,给整个宇宙蒙上了一层阴影,他们之间的相遇如冷战一般。马德琳·英格的这部作品灵感部分来源于爱因斯坦的相对论,是她早期在儿童科幻领域的尝试,赢得了纽伯瑞文学奖。麦格是文学史上开天辟地的一个人物:一个天资聪颖、热爱家人的怪女孩。

9. Ursula K Le Guin, A Wizard of Earthsea (1968)

A young boy known as Sparrowhawk saves his village with a smattering of magic he learned from his aunt, a local witch. Apprenticed to the mage Ogion the Silent, and renamed Ged, he begins his training as a sorcerer. Le Guin’s exploration of the consequences of Ged’s misfires and temptations while at a school for wizards, his struggles with dragons and his inner demons, reshaped fantasy storytelling’s concepts of good and evil. Gradually, Ged gains wisdom as he faces his challenges. "He knew now, and the knowledge was hard, that his task had never been to undo what he had done, but to finish what he had begun." "To me Le Guin’s story is about learning your craft as a writer, the long and painful struggle for mastery of both your art and yourself, written in astounding prose," says Amanda Craig, author and reviewer for the New Statesman and the Daily Telegraph. (Credit: Parnassus Press)

9.厄休拉·勒奎恩《地海巫师》(1968)

        一个叫雀鹰的小男孩施了一点法术就拯救了他的村庄,而他的法术是从她的阿姨——当地的巫婆那里学来的。雀鹰师从一个叫“沉默的欧吉安”的巫师,巫师授予他‘格得’的真名,此后他就开始成为一名巫师的训练了。格得在巫师学校遇到的失败与诱惑,以及与龙、与自己心魔的斗争,勒奎恩对其结果的探究重塑了奇幻故事中正义与邪恶的一般概念。格得在面对各种挑战的过程中逐渐积累了智慧。“他终于明白(要明白这个可不容易):他被赐予的任务从来没有阻碍他做过的事,而是帮助他完结已开始的事。”“对我来说,勒奎恩的这个故事是关于学习写作造诣的,是对艺术的完美追求与完善自身的长期而痛苦的拼搏,语言奇异,又如散文般优美。”《新政治家》和《每日电讯报》的撰稿者兼评论员亚曼达·克雷格如是说。

8. Roald Dahl, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964)

The critics’ poll nominated five of Roald Dahl’s children’s books – the most by any author. Poet and book critic Tess Taylor calls his work “rollicking, funny, scary, humane and magical.” New York Times columnist Carmela Ciuraru says, “It seems impossible to choose just one favourite by Dahl, arguably the greatest children's book author of all time, but he is at his most delightful, imaginative and mischievous in this 1964 classic.” Dahl’s most popular among the five nominated is the story of Charlie Bucket, his Grandpa Joe, the Oompa-Loompas and the five golden tickets that take Charlie inside the factory of Willy Wonka, “the most amazing, the most fantastic, the most extraordinary chocolate maker the world has ever seen!” “Something crazy is going to happen now, Charlie thought. But he wasn’t frightened. He wasn’t even nervous. He was just terrifically excited.” (Credit: Penguin Books)

8.罗尔德·达尔《查理和巧克力工厂》(1964)

        评论家们在调查中共提名了罗尔德·达尔的五本儿童书籍——这是所有作家里最多的。诗人兼书评家苔丝·泰勒称他的作品“欢乐,有趣,恐怖,亲切而魔幻。”《纽约时报》专栏作家卡梅拉·丘拉鲁说,“达尔可以说是有史以来最伟大的儿童作家,只从他的作品里选一本简直不太可能,不过1964年出版的这本书确实是最受喜爱,最具想象力也最搞怪的一部经典之作。”达尔被提名的五部作品中最受欢迎的当属此书了——故事讲的是查理在内的5个幸运的孩子抽中了金色的奖券,得以和爷爷乔进入封闭已久的威利·旺卡巧克力工厂,见到奥柏伦柏小矮人,经历了一系列不可思议的事。“这是世界上最令人叹为观止,天马行空,离奇非凡的巧克力工厂!”“查理想,这里发生的事情真是稀奇古怪。可他才不害怕嘞。他一点都不紧张,只是很激动。”

7. AA Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh (1926)

Milne named the characters in his classic children’s book after his own son Christopher Robin, his cuddly teddy bear, his stuffed animals Piglet, Tigger, the donkey Eeyore and others. Christopher and Pooh wander through the Hundred Acre Wood not unlike the forest near Milne’s home in East Sussex. His first adventure sends him up a tree buzzing with bees, singing a little song to himself: “Isn’t it funny how a bear likes honey…” And the adventures continue, narrated with sweet grace by a father who includes his son and his son’s world in every new plot twist. A playwright and contributor to Punch, Milne will be forever known as the creator of the perfect read-aloud nursery tale. (Credit: Dutton Books)

 7.米尔恩《小熊温尼·菩》(1926)

        米尔恩用他儿子的名字克里斯多夫·罗宾 为该书中的小男孩命名,他那只可爱的泰迪熊,填充玩具小猪皮杰,跳跳虎,毛驴屹耳和其它小动物。克里斯多夫和小熊菩在百亩林中游荡,这里不像米尔恩家乡东萨西克斯的森林。他的第一次冒险是爬一棵树,上面有嗡嗡叫的蜜蜂,一边爬一边哼歌给自己听:“小熊喜欢蜂蜜,这是不是很有趣......”接下来还有各种各样的冒险,米尔恩以一个父亲的亲密口吻讲述这些故事,每一个古树有他儿子的身影。米尔恩是一个剧作家,也是幽默杂志《笨拙》的撰稿人,人们会永远记住这个写出了优秀朗读童话的作家。

6. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The Little Prince (1943)

This parable, written and illustrated by an aviator disappeared with his plane in 1944, encapsulates the meaning of life in an encounter between a pilot who crash lands in the Sahara and a young prince visiting from a small planet. “It is only with one’s heart that one can see clearly,” Saint-Exupéry writes, in one of dozens of illuminating life lessons. “What is essential is invisible to the eye.”

 

“Discovered in childhood, this story of leaving home brings the hope and promise of a world opening up to the little prince,” says Shelf Awareness children’s editor Jennifer M Brown. “As we return to the book at later points in our lives, we experience the story from the pilot's point of view, sadder yet richer, and heartened because we are not alone on life's journey.” (Credit: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)

6.安东尼·德·圣.埃克苏佩里《小王子》(1943)

        这个寓言故事的作者是一个飞行家,在1944年随他的飞机一同失踪。故事讲的也是一个飞行员迫降在撒哈拉沙漠,偶遇来自一个小星球,前来造访地球的小王子。他们的交流包含了人生的真谛。“一个人只有用心去看,才能看得明白。”圣.埃克苏佩里在几十个人生课程中的一个里这样写道。“真正重要的东西用眼睛是看不见的。”

        “小王子在年少时发现了一个新的世界,并离开自己的星球,去拜访这个给他带来希望与前景的世界。”行业分析杂志《货架意识》的儿童版编辑詹尼弗·M·布朗这样评价此书。“当我们等到年长一些再回顾此书,我们就会从那位飞行员的角度体验这个故事,会体会到从前没有体会到的悲伤,但是也更能品味其丰富的内涵,随之被它的温馨感动,因为在人生旅途上,我们并不孤单。”

 

5. Louisa May Alcott, Little Women (1868)

The story of the four March sisters as they pass from childhood innocence to young adulthood has endured from one generation to the next, never losing its power to enthrall. The autobiographical novel speeds along, thanks to crisp, realistic dialogue, enduring characters and keen insights into family dynamics. “Meg was Amy's confidant and monitor, and by some strange attraction of opposites Jo was gentle Beth's,” Alcott writes. (Jo was the character most like its author.)“One name will explain my adoration for Little Women: Jo March!” says Booklist senior editor Donna Seaman. “What book-loving young reader doesn't revere Louisa May Alcott's intrepid, ink-stained hero? Of course, Alcott was also one brilliant and gripping storyteller with sharp and knowing opinions. So astutely constructed is this novel, it sustains repeated readings.” (Credit: Transatlantic Press)

5.露易莎·梅·奥尔科特《小妇人》(1868)

        故事讲述了马奇四姐妹从纯真的童年到初长成人,虽已过去多少年代,仍历久弥新。由于对话鲜活真实,人物形象深入读者心,对家庭动力有着敏锐洞察力,这本自传性质的小说情节紧凑,吸引读者。“梅格是艾米的知己和导师,而由于某种相反性格之间的奇异吸引力,乔也成了性格温和的贝思的知已和导师。”奥尔科特写道。(乔是书中最与作者本人相似的人物)“用一个名字就可以解释我对《小妇人》的喜爱:乔·马奇!”《书单》杂志资深编辑多纳·西曼如是说。“爱书的读者怎么可能不崇敬露易莎·梅·奥尔科特在书中白纸黑字刻画的无谓英雄呢?当然崇敬,奥尔科特是一个天才的讲故事的人,她的故事扣人心弦,观点既犀利又博学。这部小说设计精巧,经得起一读再读。”

4. Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865)

“Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, ‘and what is the use of a book,’ thought Alice, ‘without pictures or conversation?’ Suddenly a White Rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her.” Charles Dodgson’s Victorian fantasy was an instant sensation when published 150 years ago under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. To this day Alice’s trip down the rabbit hole and her encounters with the Cheshire Cat, the White Rabbit, the Queen of Hearts, the Mad Hatter and the rest, are fresh fodder for the literary imagination. Alice is now in the public domain, and the versions and variations continue to multiply. “Alice will always be my favourite because I love her curiosity and bravery,” says Library Journal columnist Barbara Hoffert. (Credit: Macmillan)

4.路易斯·卡罗尔《爱丽丝梦游仙境》(1865)

         “爱丽丝和姐姐并排坐在池塘边,由于无事可做,开始觉得腻烦:她不时朝姐姐正在读的那本书上瞧上一两眼,可书上没有插图,也没有对话,爱丽丝心想,‘一本书要是没有插图和对话,那有什么意思呢?’突然一只红眼睛的白兔贴着她身边跑了过去。”150年前,查尔斯·道奇森用笔名路易斯·卡罗尔写的维多利亚式的幻想作品一经出版便引起轰动。直到如今,爱丽丝掉进兔子洞里的旅行,与柴郡猫,白兔,红心女王,疯帽子先生及其他角色的邂逅,仍然是文学界想象力的源泉。爱丽丝已然成为了家喻户晓的公众人物,人们根据这个原型人物又不断创造出各种版本的故事。“爱丽丝会永远是我最喜欢的角色,因为我爱她的好奇心和勇敢无畏。”《图书馆杂志》专栏作家芭芭拉·霍佛特这样评价爱丽丝。

3. Maurice Sendak, Where the Wild Things Are (1963)

In Sendak’s Caldecott Medal-winning picture book young Max, sent to bed without supper by his mother, escapes into his imagination, “where the wild things are”. “It's a concise, eloquent, moving depiction of a child learning to master his own emotions, which is the chief task of all children everywhere,” writes Time magazine book critic Lev Grossman.“This is one of those books that has everything: beautiful, rich and surprising text, matched with beautiful, rich and surprising illustration,” says Daniel Hahn, author of the new Oxford Companion to Children's Literature. “But more than that… it’s how the words and the pictures and the page design combine to tell a story that is both simple and full of psychological insight, wisdom and truth. As close as it’s possible to come to a perfect book.” (Credit: Harper)

3.莫里斯·桑达克《野兽出没的地方》(1963)

        在莫里斯·桑达克的这本获奖图画书中,小马克斯没吃晚饭就被妈妈送上床,随即遁入想象的世界,一个“野兽出没的地方”。“叙述简洁,传神,动人,一个关于孩子如何控制自己情绪的故事,这是所有孩子的主要任务。”《时代》杂志的书评人列弗·格罗斯曼这样写道。“这是包含了所有内容的书:内容优美,丰富而往往出人意料,配上同样优美,丰富而惊奇的插图。”新版的《牛津儿童文学指南》作者丹尼尔·哈恩说。“但是不止于此......文字与插图结合起来,讲述了一个简单却洞悉心灵的故事,充满了智慧和真理。可以称得上是一本完美的书。”

 

2. CS Lewis, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)

Lewis’ high fantasy classic drew high praise in our critics’ poll. “CS Lewis’ perfect fable The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is subtitled 'a story for children',” says author and critic David Abrams. “But The Chronicles of Narnia are stories for everybody. They can be read as Christian allegory or as a magical fable about four children who stumble across a magic wardrobe and, pushing their way through mothballed fur coats, enter a land of snow and forests and fauns and lampposts and a white-skinned, black-hearted Queen who dispenses turkish delight like deadly heroin.” 

 

“This enchanting story combines unsettling magic, psychological realism and a deep sense of beauty,” notes critic Roxana Robinson, president of the Authors Guild. “Lewis is wonderful at descriptions of the physical world. It is both thrilling and comforting to read, intelligent, compassionate and graceful.” (Credit: Geoffrey Bles)

2.C.S.路易斯《狮子,女巫与魔衣橱》(1950) 

        路易斯这本经典魔幻作品在我们的调查中得到了很高评价。“C.S.路易斯精心虚构的《狮子,女巫和魔衣柜》可以配上副标题‘给孩子读的故事’。”作家兼书评人大卫·艾布拉姆斯说。“但是《纳尼亚传奇》却适合所有人阅读。它可以当作基督教语言或是关于奇幻故事来读,在这个故事中,四个孩子无意中发现了魔衣柜,走出放了皮毛大衣的衣柜后,他们进入了另一个世界,里面有白雪,森林,罗马神话中的农牧神,还有路灯柱,还有白皮肤却黑心肠的女王给孩子们发像毒品海洛因一样的土耳其软糖。”

        “这个迷人的故事把令人不安的魔力,真实的心理描写和深深的美感结合了起来。”美国作家协会会长兼书评人罗克珊娜·罗宾逊对这本书做出注解。“路易斯对客观世界的刻画精妙绝伦。读起来既让人毛骨悚然,又慰藉人心,故事优美,充满智慧和同情心。”

1. EB White, Charlotte’s Web (1952)

“One day when I was on my way to feed the pig, I began feeling sorry for the pig because, like most pigs, he was doomed to die,” writes White. Charlotte’s Web topped our critics’ poll. “If I were asked to put one book in a space capsule to send to some far-off galaxy to evoke life in all its complexity, I would send White's masterpiece about friendship, loss, resignation and mortality,” notes NPR’s Maureen Corrigan. “It was the first book in which I encountered mortality, legacy and love that transcended differences,” writes author and critic Rigoberto González. “Those were huge lessons from a book that, at its core, was about an adorable friendship between a spider and a pig.” 

 

“The complex emotions that emerge from the barnyard in EB White’s masterpiece never cloy, but feel true and important,” writes novelist and critic Meg Wolitzer. “Who can forget the opening: Fern in her damp sneakers wrestling to save the life of the runt Wilbur?” asks Karen R Long, who manages the Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards. “Not just about loyalty and friendship, this perfect book is an introduction to metaphor – the barnyard as life,” says Chicago Tribune literary editor-at-large Elizabeth Taylor. Author and critic Joan Frank calls it “sturdy and deeply wise.” “White managed to write a children’s book that encompasses mortality, friendship, and the power of the written word — amazing”, adds critic Heller McAlpin. According to our poll, Charlotte’s Web is the greatest children’s book of all time. (Credit: Harper)

1.E・B・怀特《夏洛的网》(1952)

        “有一天我在去喂猪的路上突然可怜起我家那头猪来,因为像其它猪一样,它注定要死。”怀特写道。《夏洛的网》位列最优秀的儿童读物榜首。“如果让我放一本书在太空舱,送往某个遥远的星系以唤醒另一种形式的生命,我会选择怀特的这本代表作,它写了友谊,失去,顺从和死亡。”来自美国国家公共电台的莫林·科里根这样评价。“这是我第一次在其中看到死亡,遗赠和爱可以超越外在不同的书。”作家兼书评人里戈韦托·冈萨雷斯写道。“书的中心主题——关于一只蜘蛛和一头猪之间值得赞颂的友谊,同样是意义非凡的人生课程。”

        “从E.B.怀特书里那片谷仓前空地涌现的复杂情绪并不令人倒胃口,反而很真实,很重要。”小说家兼书评人梅格·沃利策尔写道。“谁忘得了开头芬恩穿着湿漉漉的鞋拼命营救小猪威伯性命的场景?”艾耐斯菲尔德—沃尔夫图书奖的负责人员凯伦·R·朗反问道。“这本最棒的书不仅仅是关于忠诚和友谊,还有象征意义——谷仓空地象征着一生。”《芝加哥论坛报》首席文学编辑伊丽莎白·泰勒如是说。作家兼书评人琼·弗兰克称这本书“有力而充满智慧。”“怀特成功地将死亡,友谊和文字的力量展现在这本童书中——叹为观止。”海勒·麦卡尔平补充道。根据我们的调查,《夏洛的网》荣获有史以来最优秀的儿童读物称号。

下面是从第一开始排名。

EB White, Charlotte’s Web (1952)

 

CS Lewis, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)

 

Maurice Sendak, Where the Wild Things Are (1963) 

 

Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865)

 

Louisa May Alcott, Little Women (1868)

 

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The Little Prince (1943)

 

AA Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh (1926)

 

Ursula K Le Guin, A Wizard of Earthsea (1968)

 

Madeleine L’Engle, A Wrinkle In Time (1962)

 

Laura Ingalls Wilder, Little House on the Prairie (1935)

 

阅读 996 次数 最后修改于 星期六, 25 2月 2017 17:37
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